Dental stains are alterations in the coloring of the teeth caused by intrinsic and extrinsic reasons. The intrinsic causes are those where the pigments that alter the color of the teeth come from the inside. They are related to diseases, alterations in teeth formation, intake of substances (tetracyclines, fluoride, etc.), dental aging, dental diseases (caries, trauma, necrosis, hemorrhage, etc.) and materials used to treat the tooth (amalgam dental, composite, etc.). The extrinsic causes are associated with external substances that can alter the color of the teeth. These substances can come from food habits (coffee, tea, wine, etc.), tobacco or bacterial deposits.
The treatment of the stains depends on the cause. For short-term extrinsic stains, dental disinfection is sufficient by means of tartrectomies and polishing of dental surfaces. In case of long-term extrinsic staining by tobacco or by metallic agents, professional application of internal or external bleaching agents is necessary. The existing teeth whitening techniques are highly effective and consist of the use of components such as hydrogen peroxide or carbamide that clean the teeth inside of the pigments that obscure it. The treatment can be performed in the dental cabinet with a light/laser that activates the bleaching product or by applying the bleaching medication at home. Normally, both techniques are applied together.
A 47-year-old patient came to our center to resolve the irregular darkening of her teeth. The patient reported a progressive unbalanced darkening of her teeth in recent years, and the stains were more intense in some pieces than others. The treatment consisted of a 1-hour external whitening session in the clinic, accompanied by the application of the whitening agent at home during the following 7 days. The result assured a consistent rinsing of all teeth and was highly satisfactory to the patient.